In insect, the mushroom body (MB) is a brain region where memory traces are formed. Recently, EM-based reconstruction of all the input and output neurons of this structure unravelled both the highly recurrent innervation of the MB and its connections to many other brain regions. This suggests experience-gained information is integrated with other signals linked to various needs of the animal. For my project I test elements of the circuit responsible for experience-dependent behaviour. I am using neurogenetic tools to manipulate neurons and test their role in generating or expressing a memory. I am imaging calcium signals to visualize changes in neuronal responses before and after learning. I particularly tackle two main questions: - How do modulatory neurons inform mushroom body neurons about the relevance of a stimulus, and how does the signal evolve over time and experience? - How do neuronal populations integrate experience and coordinate behavioural switches?