Axon regeneration in the damaged CNS: Regeneration of axons after CNS damage is blocked by several molecules in the environment and by loss of intrinsic regeneration ability, We modify the environment to make it more permissive and modify axonal properties to improve regeneration. Plasticity is the main mechanism for functional recovery after damage to the nervous system. In childhood plasticity is largely turned off by extracellular matrix structures called perineeuronal nets. By moduating their function we can improve functional recovery and memory in the adult CNS. Interfacing the nervous system with electronics: We are developing a microchannel interface prosthesis which allows permanent extracellular recording from axons. This technology is being developed for control of bladder function in paralyzed human and veterinary patients, and for controlling prosthetic limbs.