• Psychology
  • Research Focus


  • Working Memory
  • Computation
  • Cognition
  • Vision
  • Artificial Neural Network
  • Population Code
  • Eye Gaze
  • Sensorimotor Prediction
  • Clinical Conditions

  • Alzheimer's disease
  • Autism
  • Dementia
  • Schizophrenia
  • Stroke
  • Equipment & Techniques

  • Behavioural analysis
  • Computational modelling
  • Statistical analysis
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    Professor Paul Bays

    University Position
    Professor Paul Bays is pleased to consider applications from prospective PhD students.


    In order to interact with the world, our brains construct and sustain their own internal representations of it. Our aim is to understand the nature of these representations and the computations the brain performs on them to achieve behavioural goals. In the lab, we use visual psychophysics and memory tasks, eye and limb movement recordings, mathematical models and computer simulations. We also collaborate with researchers using brain imaging, recording and stimulation, and with neuropsychologists who study cognitive aging, mental illness and neurological disorders.

    Key Publications

    Representation and computation in working memory

    E-pub date: 1 Aug 2022
    Authors: P Bays, S Schneegans, WJ Ma, TF Brady

    Stochastic sampling provides a unifying account of visual working memory limits.

    Journal: Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A
    E-pub date: 25 Aug 2020
    Authors: S Schneegans, R Taylor, PM Bays

    Neural Architecture for Feature Binding in Visual Working Memory.

    Journal: J Neurosci
    E-pub date: 5 Apr 2017
    Authors: S Schneegans, PM Bays

    Spikes not slots: noise in neural populations limits working memory.

    Journal: Trends Cogn Sci
    E-pub date: 31 Aug 2015
    Authors: PM Bays

    Changing concepts of working memory.

    Journal: Nat Neurosci
    E-pub date: 1 Mar 2014
    Authors: WJ Ma, M Husain, PM Bays

    The precision of visual working memory is set by allocation of a shared resource.

    Journal: J Vis
    E-pub date: 9 Sep 2009
    Authors: PM Bays, RFG Catalao, M Husain

    Dynamic shifts of limited working memory resources in human vision.

    Journal: Science
    E-pub date: 8 Aug 2008
    Authors: PM Bays, M Husain

    Attenuation of self-generated tactile sensations is predictive, not postdictive.

    Journal: PLoS Biol
    E-pub date: 1 Feb 2006
    Authors: PM Bays, JR Flanagan, DM Wolpert

    Two eyes for an eye: the neuroscience of force escalation.

    Journal: Science
    E-pub date: 11 Jul 2003
    Authors: SS Shergill, PM Bays, CD Frith, DM Wolpert