Causes of poor welfare in large animals during transport.
The welfare of animals during transport should be assessed using a range of behavioural, physiological and carcass quality measures. In addition, health is an important part of welfare so the extent of any disease, injury or mortality resulting from, or exacerbated by, transport should be measured. Many of the indicators are measures of stress in that they involve long-term adverse effects on the individual. Key factors affecting the welfare of animals during handling and transport which are discussed are: attitudes to animals and the need for training of staff; methods of payment of staff; laws and retailers' codes; genetics, especially selection for high productivity; rearing conditions and experience; the mixing of animals from different social groups; handling procedures: driving methods; stocking density; increased susceptibility to disease and increased spread of disease.