Do Regions of Increased Inflammation Progress to New White Matter Hyperintensities?: A Longitudinal Positron Emission Tomography-Magnetic Resonance Imaging Study.
BACKGROUND: Recent studies have demonstrated increased microglial activation using 11C-PK11195 positron emission tomography imaging, indicating central nervous system inflammation, in cerebral small vessel disease. However, whether such areas of neuroinflammation progress to tissue damage is uncertain. We determined whether white matter destined to become white matter hyperintensities (WMH) at 1 year had evidence of altered inflammation at baseline. METHODS: Forty subjects with small vessel disease (20 sporadic and 20 cerebral autosomal dominant arteriopathy with subcortical infarcts and leukoencephalopathy) and 20 controls were recruited to this case-control observational study from in- and out-patient clinics at Addenbrooke's Hospital, Cambridge, UK and imaged at baseline with both 11C-PK11195 positron emission tomography and magnetic resonance imaging; and magnetic resonance imaging including diffusion tensor imaging was repeated at 1 year. WMH were segmented at baseline and 1 year, and areas of new lesion identified. Baseline 11C-PK11195 binding potential and diffusion tensor imaging parameters in these voxels, and normal appearing white matter, was measured. RESULTS: Complete positron emission tomography-magnetic resonance imaging data was available for 17 controls, 16 sporadic small vessel disease, and 14 cerebral autosomal dominant arteriopathy with subcortical infarcts and leukoencephalopathy participants. 11C-PK11195 binding in voxels destined to become new WMH was lower than in normal appearing white matter, which did not progress to WMH (-0.133[±0.081] versus -0.045 [±0.044]; P