Global, Regional, and National Economic Consequences of Stroke.


BACKGROUND: An understanding of global, regional, and national macroeconomic losses caused by stroke is important for allocation of clinical and research resources. The authors investigated the macroeconomic consequences of stroke disease burden in the year 2019 in 173 countries. METHODS: Disability-adjusted life year data for overall stroke and its subtypes (ischemic stroke, intracerebral hemorrhage, and subarachnoid hemorrhage) were collected from the GBD study (Global Burden of Disease) 2019 database. Gross domestic product (GDP, adjusted for purchasing power parity [PPP]) data were collected from the World Bank; GDP and disability-adjusted life year data were combined to estimate macroeconomic losses using a value of lost welfare (VLW) approach. All results are presented in 2017 international US dollars adjusted for PPP. RESULTS: Globally, in 2019, VLW due to stroke was $2059.67 billion or 1.66% of the global GDP. Global VLW/GDP for stroke subtypes was 0.78% (VLW=$964.51 billion) for ischemic stroke, 0.71% (VLW=$882.81 billion) for intracerebral hemorrhage, and 0.17% (VLW=$212.36 billion) for subarachnoid hemorrhage. The Central European, Eastern European, and Central Asian GBD super-region reported the highest VLW/GDP for stroke overall (3.01%), ischemic stroke (1.86%), and for subarachnoid hemorrhage (0.26%). The Southeast Asian, East Asian, and Oceanian GBD super-region reported the highest VLW/GDP for intracerebral hemorrhage (1.48%). CONCLUSIONS: The global macroeconomic consequences related to stroke are vast even when considering stroke subtypes. The present quantification may be leveraged to help justify increased spending of finite resources on stroke in an effort to improve outcomes for patients with stroke globally.