GnRH pulse generator frequency is modulated by kisspeptin and GABA-glutamate interactions in the posterodorsal medial amygdala in female mice.


Kisspeptin neurons in the arcuate nucleus of the hypothalamus generate gonadotrophin-releasing hormone (GnRH) pulses, and act as critical initiators of functional gonadotrophin secretion and reproductive competency. However, kisspeptin in other brain regions, most notably the posterodorsal subnucleus of the medial amygdala (MePD), plays a significant modulatory role over the hypothalamic kisspeptin population; our recent studies using optogenetics have shown that low-frequency light stimulation of MePD kisspeptin results in increased luteinsing hormone pulse frequency. Nonetheless, the neurochemical pathways that underpin this regulatory function remain unknown. To study this, we have utilised an optofluid technology, precisely combining optogenetic stimulation with intra-nuclear pharmacological receptor antagonism, to investigate the neurotransmission involved in this circuitry. We have shown experimentally and verified using a mathematical model that functional neurotransmission of both GABA and glutamate is a requirement for effective modulation of the GnRH pulse generator by amygdala kisspeptin neurons.