Metabolic Control of Smoldering Neuroinflammation.


Compelling evidence exists that patients with chronic neurological conditions, which includes progressive multiple sclerosis, display pathological changes in neural metabolism and mitochondrial function. However, it is unknown if a similar degree of metabolic dysfunction occurs also in non-neural cells in the central nervous system. Specifically, it remains to be clarified (i) the full extent of metabolic changes in tissue-resident microglia and infiltrating macrophages after prolonged neuroinflammation (e.g., at the level of chronic active lesions), and (ii) whether these alterations underlie a unique pathogenic phenotype that is amenable for therapeutic targeting. Herein, we discuss how cell metabolism and mitochondrial function govern the function of chronic active microglia and macrophages brain infiltrates and identify new metabolic targets for therapeutic approaches aimed at reducing smoldering neuroinflammation.