Neurological update: neuroimaging in dementia.


Neuroimaging for dementia has made remarkable progress in recent years, shedding light on diagnostic subtypes of dementia, predicting prognosis and monitoring pathology. This review covers some updates in the understanding of dementia using structural imaging, positron emission tomography (PET), structural and functional connectivity, and using big data and artificial intelligence. Progress with neuroimaging methods allows neuropathology to be examined in vivo, providing a suite of biomarkers for understanding neurodegeneration and for application in clinical trials. In addition, we highlight quantitative susceptibility imaging as an exciting new technique that may prove to be a sensitive biomarker for a range of neurodegenerative diseases. There are challenges in translating novel imaging techniques to clinical practice, particularly in developing standard methodologies and overcoming regulatory issues. It is likely that clinicians will need to lead the way if these obstacles are to be overcome. Continued efforts applying neuroimaging to understand mechanisms of neurodegeneration and translating them to clinical practice will complete a revolution in neuroimaging.