Parameters of prediction: Multidimensional characterization of top-down influence in visual perception.


Despite the recent popularity of predictive processing models of brain function, the term prediction is often instantiated very differently across studies. These differences in definition can substantially change the type of cognitive or neural operation hypothesised and thus have critical implications for the corresponding behavioural and neural correlates during visual perception. Here, we propose a five-dimensional scheme to characterise different parameters of prediction. Namely, flow of information, mnemonic origin, specificity, complexity, and temporal precision. We describe these dimensions and provide examples of their application to previous work. Such a characterisation not only facilitates the integration of findings across studies, but also helps stimulate new research questions.