The distribution of five species of flies (Diptera: Muscidae) over the bodies of dairy heifers in England
Five species of Muscidae were found to be commonly associated with dairy heifers in three areas in southern England. The biting flies Haematobosca stimulans (Mg.) and Stomoxys calcitrans (L.) were relatively rare and fed from the back, flanks and legs. The horn fly, Haematobia irritans (L.), was present in highest numbers; it rested on the back and fed on the legs, belly and occasionally on the teats. Musca autumnalis Deg. was found mainly on the head and had a restricted season. Hydrotaea irritans (Fall.) had a marked diurnal variation in activity, being most abundant in the morning and evening. It was found on the head but predominantly on the belly and teats. When judged by its site preference on cattle, it is the fly most likely to be involved in the transmission of summer mastitis. © 1984, Cambridge University Press. All rights reserved.