Transcriptional profiling of Kiss1 neurons from arcuate and rostral periventricular hypothalamic regions in female mice


IN BRIEF: The transcriptional profiles of Kiss1 neurons from the arcuate and the rostral periventricular region of the third ventricle of the hypothalamus have been directly compared in diestrous female mice. Differentially expressed genes provide molecular signatures for these two populations of Kiss1 neurons and insights into their physiology. ABSTRACT: The neuropeptide kisspeptin is produced by Kiss1 neurons and is required for normal mammalian fertility. The two main populations of Kiss1 neurons are located in the arcuate (ARC) and the rostral periventricular area of the third ventricle (RP3V) of the hypothalamus. To define the molecular signature of these Kiss1 populations, transcriptomics profiling was performed using purified Kiss1 neurons from diestrous stage female mice. From a data set of 7026 genes, 332 differentially expressed transcripts were identified between the Kiss1ARC and Kiss1RP3V neurons. These data have uncovered novel transcripts and expanded the receptor expression, co-transmitter and transcription factor profiles of Kiss1 neurons. Validation by quantitative RT-PCR confirmed differential expression of Cartpt, Ddc, Gal, Gda, Npy2r, Penk, Rasp18, Rxfp3, Slc18a2, and Th in Kiss1RP3V neurons and Gpr83, Hctr2, Nhlh2, Nmn, Npr3, Nr4a2, Nr5a2, Olfm2, Tac2 and Tacr3 in Kiss1ARC neurons. Enriched pathways common to both Kiss1 populations included the NF-kB, mTor, endocannabinoid, GPCR, Wnt and oestrogen signalling while some pathways (e.g. cytomegalovirus infection, dopaminergic and serotonergic biosynthesis) were specific to Kiss1RP3V neurons. Our gene expression data set augments the existing data sets describing the transcriptional profiles of Kiss1 neuronal populations.