Vascular Positron Emission Tomography and Restenosis in Symptomatic Peripheral Arterial Disease: A Prospective Clinical Study.


OBJECTIVES: This study determined whether in vivo positron emission tomography (PET) of arterial inflammation (18F-fluorodeoxyglucose [18F-FDG]) or microcalcification (18F-sodium fluoride [18F-NaF]) could predict restenosis following PTA. BACKGROUND: Restenosis following lower limb percutaneous transluminal angioplasty (PTA) is common, unpredictable, and challenging to treat. Currently, it is impossible to predict which patient will suffer from restenosis following angioplasty. METHODS: In this prospective observational cohort study, 50 patients with symptomatic peripheral arterial disease underwent 18F-FDG and 18F-NaF PET/computed tomography (CT) imaging of the superficial femoral artery before and 6 weeks after angioplasty. The primary outcome was arterial restenosis at 12 months. RESULTS: Forty subjects completed the study protocol with 14 patients (35%) reaching the primary outcome of restenosis. The baseline activities of femoral arterial inflammation (18F-FDG tissue-to-background ratio [TBR] 2.43 [interquartile range (IQR): 2.29 to 2.61] vs. 1.63 [IQR: 1.52 to 1.78]; p