College Downing College
  • Psychology
  • Other Interdiciplinary Incentives

  • Neuroscience
  • Research Focus


  • Drug Addiction
  • Predictions For Addictions
  • Associative Learning
  • Memory Reconsolidation
  • Motivation/Reward
  • Clinical Conditions

  • Addiction
  • Obsessive compulsive disorder
  • Equipment & Techniques

  • Behavioural analysis
  • Immunohistochemistry
  • Back

    Professor Barry Everitt F.R.S., F.Med.Sci., Sc.D.

    University Position
    Emeritus Professor


    My research is concerned with the neural and psychological mechanisms underlying learning, memory, motivation and reward especially related to drug addiction. A major research theme is the impact of learning on drug addiction - both its development and its persistence. Thus, taking drugs might begin as a voluntary, or goal-directed, action but may transform in time to become a compulsive habit that is extremely difficult to relinquish. This transition from initial drug use to addiction may occur through the progressive engagement of different pavlovian and instrumental learning systems in the brain. We have begun to define the neural basis of these learning mechanisms underlying addiction and are also investigating the molecular and neurochemical basis of memory ?reconsolidation?, the process by which drug and fear (and other memories) become labile when reactivated at retrieval and which holds promise for future treatments of addiction and other neuropsychiatric disorders.

    Key Publications

    Nucleus accumbens D2/3 receptors predict trait impulsivity and cocaine reinforcement.

    Journal: Science
    E-pub date: 2 Mar 2007
    Authors: JW Dalley, TD Fryer, L Brichard, ESJ Robinson, DEH Theobald, K Lääne, Y Peña, ER Murphy, Y Shah, K Probst, I Abakumova, FI Aigbirhio, HK Richards, Y Hong, J-C Baron, BJ Everitt, TW Robbins

    Role of the anterior cingulate cortex in the control over behavior by Pavlovian conditioned stimuli in rats.

    Journal: Behav Neurosci
    E-pub date: 1 Jun 2003
    Authors: RN Cardinal, JA Parkinson, HD Marbini, AJ Toner, TJ Bussey, TW Robbins, BJ Everitt

    Effects of selective excitotoxic lesions of the nucleus accumbens core, anterior cingulate cortex, and central nucleus of the amygdala on autoshaping performance in rats.

    Journal: Behavioral Neuroscience
    E-pub date: 1 Aug 2002
    Authors: RN Cardinal, JA Parkinson, G Lachenal, KM Halkerston, N Rudarakanchana, J Hall, CH Morrison, SR Howes, TW Robbins, BJ Everitt

    Emotion and motivation: the role of the amygdala, ventral striatum, and prefrontal cortex.

    Journal: Neurosci Biobehav Rev
    E-pub date: 1 May 2002
    Authors: RN Cardinal, JA Parkinson, J Hall, BJ Everitt

    Impulsive choice induced in rats by lesions of the nucleus accumbens core.

    Journal: Science
    E-pub date: 29 Jun 2001
    Authors: RN Cardinal, DR Pennicott, CL Sugathapala, TW Robbins, BJ Everitt


    Evidence for a Long-Lasting Compulsive Alcohol Seeking Phenotype in Rats.

    Journal: Neuropsychopharmacology
    E-pub date: 1 Mar 2018
    Authors: C Giuliano, Y Peña-Oliver, CR Goodlett, RN Cardinal, TW Robbins, ET Bullmore, D Belin, BJ Everitt

    Baseline-dependent effects of cocaine pre-exposure on impulsivity and D2/3 receptor availability in the rat striatum: possible relevance to the attention-deficit hyperactivity syndrome.

    Journal: Neuropsychopharmacology
    E-pub date: 1 Jul 2013
    Authors: D Caprioli, YT Hong, SJ Sawiak, V Ferrari, DJ Williamson, B Jupp, T Adrian Carpenter, FI Aigbirhio, BJ Everitt, TW Robbins, TD Fryer, JW Dalley

    Neural Systems of Motivation

    E-pub date: 1 Jan 2010
    Authors: RN Cardinal, BJ Everitt

    Modelling human drug abuse and addiction with dedicated small animal positron emission tomography.

    Journal: Neuropharmacology
    E-pub date: 1 Aug 2009
    Authors: JW Dalley, TD Fryer, FI Aigbirhio, L Brichard, HK Richards, YT Hong, J-C Baron, BJ Everitt, TW Robbins

    Chapter 3 Neuroscience of Drugs and Addiction

    E-pub date: 29 Sep 2006
    Authors: T Robbins, RN Cardinal, P DiCiano, PW Halligan, K Hellemans, J Lee, BJ Everitt

    Limbic corticostriatal systems and delayed reinforcement.

    Journal: Ann N Y Acad Sci
    E-pub date: 1 Jun 2004
    Authors: RN Cardinal, CA Winstanley, TW Robbins, BJ Everitt

    Neural and psychological mechanisms underlying appetitive learning: links to drug addiction.

    Journal: Curr Opin Neurobiol
    E-pub date: 1 Apr 2004
    Authors: RN Cardinal, BJ Everitt

    The contribution of the amygdala, nucleus accumbens, and prefrontal cortex to emotion and motivated behaviour

    E-pub date: 1 Aug 2003
    Authors: RN Cardinal, JA Parkinson, J Hall, BJ Everitt

    Nucleus accumbens dopamine depletion impairs both acquisition and performance of appetitive Pavlovian approach behaviour: implications for mesoaccumbens dopamine function.

    Journal: Behav Brain Res
    E-pub date: 2 Dec 2002
    Authors: JA Parkinson, JW Dalley, RN Cardinal, A Bamford, B Fehnert, G Lachenal, N Rudarakanchana, KM Halkerston, TW Robbins, BJ Everitt

    Local analysis of behaviour in the adjusting-delay task for assessing choice of delayed reinforcement.

    Journal: Neural Netw
    E-pub date: 1 Aug 2002
    Authors: RN Cardinal, N Daw, TW Robbins, BJ Everitt

    Limbic cortical-ventral striatal systems underlying appetitive conditioning.

    Journal: Prog Brain Res
    E-pub date: 1 Aug 2000
    Authors: JA Parkinson, RN Cardinal, BJ Everitt